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Elaine Vermeulen
Elaine Vermeulen

Poultry Farming In Tamil Nadu Pdf Download


Poultry Farming in Tamil Nadu: A Guide for Beginners




Poultry farming is the process of raising domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese for the purpose of producing meat, eggs and feathers. Poultry farming is one of the most profitable and popular agribusinesses in India, especially in Tamil Nadu, which is the leading state in broiler production and the second largest producer of eggs in the country. Poultry farming provides employment opportunities, income generation, nutritional security and waste management for the rural population. In this article, we will provide some basic information on how to start poultry farming in Tamil Nadu, what are the requirements, challenges and opportunities in this sector.


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Types of Poultry Farming




There are two main types of poultry farming: commercial and backyard. Commercial poultry farming is the large-scale production of poultry birds for commercial purposes, usually under contract with integrators or processors. Backyard poultry farming is the small-scale rearing of poultry birds for domestic consumption or local market, usually by resource-poor farmers or women. Both types of poultry farming have their own advantages and disadvantages, as shown in the table below.




Type


Advantages


Disadvantages




Commercial


- High productivity and profitability- Availability of quality chicks, feed, equipment, vaccines and medicines- Technical and professional guidance from integrators or processors- Market linkage and assured price- Faster return on investment


- High initial investment and operational cost- Dependence on integrators or processors for inputs and outputs- Risk of diseases and mortality due to high stocking density- Environmental pollution due to waste disposal- Ethical issues related to animal welfare




Backyard


- Low input and maintenance cost- Utilization of locally available resources- Production of organic eggs and meat with high demand and price- Contribution to food security and poverty alleviation- Ecologically sound management of natural resources


- Low productivity and profitability- Lack of quality chicks, feed, equipment, vaccines and medicines- Lack of technical and professional guidance- Lack of market linkage and price fluctuation- Slow return on investment




How to Start Poultry Farming in Tamil Nadu




If you are interested in starting poultry farming in Tamil Nadu, you need to consider the following factors:



  • Objective: You need to decide what is your objective for poultry farming, whether it is for commercial or backyard purpose, and what type of poultry birds you want to raise, such as broilers (meat), layers (eggs) or dual-purpose (both).



  • Budget: You need to estimate how much money you can invest in poultry farming, and how much income you can expect from it. You need to consider the cost of land, building, equipment, feed, chicks, vaccines, medicines, labour, electricity, water, transportation, marketing, etc. You also need to consider the risk of losses due to diseases, mortality, theft, predators, natural disasters, etc.



  • Location: You need to select a suitable location for your poultry farm, which should be away from residential areas, industrial areas, highways, airports, etc. The location should have adequate space, ventilation, sunlight, drainage, water supply and electricity supply. The location should also be accessible to markets, veterinary services and extension services.



  • Housing: You need to construct a proper housing system for your poultry birds, which should provide protection from weather conditions, predators and diseases. The housing system should have enough space for movement, feeding, drinking and nesting. The housing system should also have proper litter management, ventilation system, lighting system and temperature control system.



  • Breeds: You need to choose the right breeds for your poultry farming, depending on your objective and market demand. There are many breeds available in India for poultry farming, such as Vanaraja, Giriraja, Krishibro, Kalinga Brown, etc. for backyard purpose; and Cobb, Hubbard, Ross, etc. for commercial purpose. You need to source the quality chicks from reliable hatcheries or suppliers.



  • Feed: You need to provide balanced and nutritious feed to your poultry birds, which should contain adequate amount of protein, energy, minerals, vitamins and water. You can either buy the ready-made feed from the market or prepare your own feed using locally available ingredients such as maize, soybean, rice bran, fish meal, oil cake, etc. You need to follow the proper feeding schedule and quantity for different stages of growth and production.



  • Health: You need to maintain the health and hygiene of your poultry birds, which is essential for their productivity and profitability. You need to vaccinate your poultry birds against common diseases such as Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease, fowl pox, etc. You also need to deworm your poultry birds regularly and treat them for any parasites or infections. You need to keep the poultry house clean and disinfect it periodically. You need to monitor the signs of diseases and mortality and take prompt action if any.



  • Marketing: You need to market your poultry products, such as eggs and meat, to the consumers or traders. You need to identify the potential market segments and channels for your poultry products, such as local shops, hotels, restaurants, supermarkets, etc. You need to ensure the quality and safety of your poultry products by following the proper packaging, labeling, grading and transportation standards. You also need to be aware of the market prices and demand trends for your poultry products.




Challenges and Opportunities in Poultry Farming in Tamil Nadu




Poultry farming in Tamil Nadu faces many challenges, such as:



  • Competition: Poultry farming in Tamil Nadu is highly competitive due to the presence of many large-scale integrators and processors who dominate the market. They have access to better inputs, technologies, services and markets than the small-scale farmers. They also have the advantage of economies of scale and bargaining power.



  • Diseases: Poultry farming in Tamil Nadu is prone to various diseases that affect the health and productivity of the poultry birds. Some of the major diseases are avian influenza, Ranikhet disease, coccidiosis, etc. These diseases can cause high mortality and economic losses to the farmers.



  • Price fluctuation: Poultry farming in Tamil Nadu is subject to price fluctuation due to the demand and supply factors. The prices of poultry products vary depending on the season, festival, occasion, etc. The prices of poultry inputs also vary depending on the availability, quality, etc. The farmers have little control over these price fluctuations and have to bear the risk.



  • Environmental issues: Poultry farming in Tamil Nadu causes environmental issues such as pollution, odour, noise, etc. The waste generated from poultry farming can contaminate the soil, water and air if not disposed properly. The waste can also attract pests and diseases that can affect the human health and animal welfare.




Poultry farming in Tamil Nadu also offers many opportunities, such as:



  • Growing demand: Poultry farming in Tamil Nadu has a growing demand due to the increasing population, urbanization, income level, awareness level, preference level, etc. The consumption of poultry products is increasing in Tamil Nadu due to their nutritional value, taste, convenience, affordability, etc. The demand for organic eggs and meat is also increasing due to their health benefits.



  • Government support: Poultry farming in Tamil Nadu has a government support through various schemes and policies that aim to promote and develop this sector. Some of the schemes are National Livestock Mission, National Poultry Development Programme, Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana, etc. These schemes provide financial assistance, technical guidance, training, infrastructure development, marketing support, etc. to the farmers.



  • Innovation: Poultry farming in Tamil Nadu has a scope for innovation through research and development that can improve the productivity and profitability of this sector. Some of the areas of innovation are genetic improvement, feed formulation, disease management, waste management, value addition, etc.



  • Diversification: Poultry farming in Tamil Nadu has a potential for diversification through integration with other sectors such as crop production, dairy production, fish production, etc. This can enhance the income generation, resource utilization, reduction, etc. for the farmers.




Conclusion




Poultry farming in Tamil Nadu is a lucrative and rewarding agribusiness that can provide multiple benefits to the farmers and the society. However, it also faces many challenges that need to be overcome with proper planning, management and support. Poultry farming in Tamil Nadu has a bright future with many opportunities for growth and innovation. If you are interested in starting poultry f


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